Papers of Cristina Raț presented in conferences attended in 2014:
Bare peripheries. State retrenchment and population profiling in segregated Roma
settlements from Romania, at the 2014 Annual Conference of the Hungarian Sociological Association, November 27-29, Cluj-Napoca
Presentation_Hun Soc Conf_CR
Social Citizenship at the Margins. A Return to Charity?, at the 11th Annual Conference of the Romanian Society for Social and Cultural Anthropology, 21-23 November 2014, Cluj-Napoca
Enikő Vincze published the article Glocalizarea neoliberalismului în România prin reforma statului şi dezvoltarea antreprenorială in the Romanian volume Epoca Traian Băsescu, coordinated by Florin Poenaru and Costi Rogozanu, published at Editura Tact in October 2014. The article (The glocalization of neoliberalism in Romania through the reform of the state and entrepreneurial development) makes an analysis of the post-socialist public policy frame and in particular of how was its neoliberal form shaped during the last decade. Within this context one may better understand the logic of sectoral policies, such as housing, spatial and social policies observed under the SPAREX research. Continue reading
The article was prepared for the Special issue of the European Journal of Women’s Studies, The New Europe: 25 Years after the Fall of the Wall, guest editors Barbara Einhorn and Kornelia Slavova, November 2014; 21 (4). At the moment, the online vesrion of the article is available at European Journal of Women’s Studies, November 2014 21: 435-442, doi:10.1177/1350506814548963 (http://ejw.sagepub.com/content/current).
The article is partially based on the analysis of “Roma politics” and “policies for Roma” conducted under the auspices of the SPAREX research. Continue reading
Four members of the SPAREX research team published articles inspired by the topic of our investigation in the cultural journal “Vatra”, XLIV, Nr. 519-520, June-July 2014:
Adrian Dohotaru: Antropologie performativă. Cazul ghetoului Pata Rât, pp. 60-64.
Norbert Petrovici: Industrii creative și dezvoltare urbană, pp. 57-60.
Cristina Raț: Despre margini, pp. 41-44.
Enikő Vincze: Politica, politicile și romii, pp. 38-41.
The article is based on the paper Cultural identity politics, social policies and racialization processes regarding Roma, which was prepared and presented by Enikő Vincze at the workshop “Race in/outside post-WWII Europe: On the Politics of Governing and Knowledge Production” (organized by the CEU Institute for Advanced Study and Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Budapest, June 10, 2014). It is relying on the results of the SPAREX research, in particular on the analysis of Roma politics and policies for Roma.
The paper discusses about the politics of culture, rights, social inclusion and development as processes of subjectification, and about how they are (ab)used in the process of racialization of the Roma. It briefly describes attempts of Romani nation- and minority-building, demands for universal human rights for Roma, “Europeanization” of Roma by inclusion policies, and the production of under-development, but as well as how the resulting subject positions for Roma are interpreted in a racist frame as ‘The inferior’ nation”, ‘The different’ minority, ‘The Other’ European citizen, ‘The vulnerable group’ and the ‘East-European sub-human’. The analysis views all these developments as dynamics that create subject positions for Roma in the broader power structure of capitalism within which they operate. Eventually the paper addresses what is the role of anti-Roma racism in the current neoliberalization processes and how is anti-Roma racism related to “The Roma poverty” and “Roma cultural inferiority” discourse. Last, but not least, the paper suggests the need for a new politics of empowerment that could act as transformative subjectification, which would enable one to act from a subject position created for him/her by the economic and cultural system in a way that changes the system itself from the local, through the national to the European level.
The text is under revision, prepared for publication in a journal. Its main ideas and conclusions are presented in a synthetic table available here Roma_subjectification_table_EV_june2014(2) Continue reading
A paper using research results of SPAREX was presented at the debate on “Socio-territorial desegregation of Pata Rat and the inclusive institutional mechanisms” organized at the Prefecture of Cluj on the 20th of June 2014 on the initiative of the Minister for Social Dialogue, Aurelia Cristea.
Cluj oras fara excluz socio-terit_EV_20iun2014
Presentations were sustained by experts involved in the elaboration of proposals regarding the introduction of the social inclusion perspective into the Development Strategy of Cluj-Napoca 2014-2020 (Cluj 2020 – inclusive city). Participants included academics from the Babes-Bolyai University, local activists, NGO people (such as the Community Association of Roma from Coastei, the Reseource Center for Roma Communities and others), and representatives of local public institution (Cluj Prefecture, Cluj-Napoca City Hall and Local Council, County School Inspectorate, North-West Office of the National Agency for Roma), but as well as representatives of Amnesty International and ERRC.
Paper presented at the conference “Autocracy and Market Economy”, University of Vienna, 15-17 May 2014
The aim of the presentation is o illustrate how economic processes (such as marketization) and politics (in particular the politics of housing) are interlinked in the post-socialist context of Romania. Most importantly, I aim to show how these broad economic and political processes are generating social exclusion, which in the case of poor Roma means the juxtaposition of multiple material deprivations, cultural stigmatization and non-participation on the societal life (economy, culture, politics in the large sense of the term).
marketization housing politics Roma exclusion
The presentation observes: the way in which the housing domain was privatized and marketized in the post-socialist Romania, a process actively sustained by state interventions at national and local level, created instances of advanced marginality characteristic of the neoliberal regime. The disadvantaged, mostly isolated housing areas are inhabited by people severely impoverished by economic restructuring and the lack of proper social protection measures and social inclusion policies.These neighborhoods are for many times stigmatized as “Gypsyhoods”, so the identity of the place and the identity of people inhabiting it are associated in a racializing manner.
The major conclusion of the paper – linked to the topic of the conference – is that from the point of view of the impoverished people and territories, the post-socialist (housing) market sustained by state politics generated undemocratic processes, i.e. less or no participation on the societal life. These processes are situating them into disempowering socio-economic positions from where they cannot act as equal citizens enjoying the resources and goods available in their social environment.
The paper was presented at the Workshop “Public policies for Roma inclusion in Romania and the inclusion of Roma migrants from Romania in Catalunya”, organized in Barcelona by Facultat de Geografia i Historia/ Universidad de Barcelona, and the Faculty of Political Sciences (SNSPA), Bucharest, FEBRUARY 27-28, 2014.
This paper addresses “Roma inclusion policies” in Romania as forms of governmentality, or as politically informed options that are unable to treat the structural causes of socio-territorial exclusion of marginalized Roma. The paper briefly discusses about the latter, and – by three examples – it illustrates how Roma socio-territorial exclusion is racialized. My main message is that Roma exclusion is produced at the intersection of neoliberalization and racialization, and – due to this – instead of social inclusion policies conceived as technical interventions, there is a need for a politics of social justice capable to act on the behalf of redistribution, recognition and political representation of ethnic Roma, including its better-off, marginalized or excluded classes.
This paper, presented at the conference “Ethnic and religious conflicts, nationalist discourses and inter-ethnic tolerance in the 20th century. A comparative approach”, organized at ELTE Budapest on the 21th of October 2013 by Collège Doctoral Européen en SHS – Sorbonne nouvelle, University of Rome, Babes-Bolyai University, and Eötvös Loránd University Doctoral School of Sociology under the framework of Collège Doctoral Européen, addresses “politics and policies for Roma” as a process and/or as a battleground by and on which multiple and multilevel actors negotiate on the “proper” approach towards “the Roma question”. This process does not only define “the problem” and identify “the solution” but it is also creating “the Roma” as political subject, while challenging traditional understandings of state, nation, minority, citizenship or belonging. On the base of reconstructing the shift from the politics of culture and politics of rights towards a politics of policies for social inclusion (which is a process of de-politicization), the author argues for the need of re-politicizing Roma participation and empowerment by the means of understandings and actions that focus on the systemic causes of poverty, marginalization and exclusion, but also on socio-economic rights, which address rights as a socially embed process, and is co-creating and sustaining anti-racist coalitions and solidarities across ethnic groups.
Roma ethnicity EV_doct conf ELTE oct2013
21 October 2013
The present paper comparatively analysis the housing dimension of Roma social inclusion strategies formulated by five new EU member states: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. It syntheses the main critiques received by these national strategies from the EC (2012), the European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC, 2013) and the Civil Society Monitoring Reports, commissioned by the Open Society Foundations (OSF, 2013). Housing is defined as a key dimension of inclusion, along with education, employment, and access to health care services. The analysis below looks at three sub-dimensions of the housing problem: (1) the right to housing and policies for social housing, (2) protection against forced evictions and (3) spatial desegregation. For each country, it also presents the main recommendations of the EC (2012) on the national Roma inclusion strategies.
The housing dimension of social inclusion EU